THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION
STUDY GUIDE

Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations

Vocabulary for the Mexican Revolution

Anti-reelectionist party- Francisco Madero's party with which he ran in the 1910 election

Plan of San Luis Potosi- Written by Madero while in jail; declared that 1) the results of the 1910 election were null and void 2) Madero assumed the title of provisional president and 3) called for free elections when conditions permitted. Suggests Diaz hardly had an iron grip; along with this plan he called for armed resist; As a result: the rebel movement grew rapidly, as its troops took Ciudad Juarez (across the border from El Paso).

Treaty of Ciudad Juarez- was issued after the capture of the city of Juarez; provisions: ended hostilities, called for resignation of Diaz, and placed Francisco de la Berra as provisional president; the biggest problem with the treaty was that it left all of Diaz' institutions and his cabinet in place

Plan de Ayala- this was Emiliano Zapata's reform policy; maintained that all foreign lands would be seized, all lands previously taken from villages (ejidos) would be returned, 1/3 of all land held by "friendly" hacendados taken for redistribution, and all lands owned by Zapata's enemies would be taken. Zapatistas (country dwellers who had seen their lands taken away through "liberal" inspiration) said Madero "did not carry to a happy end the revolution which gloriously he initiated with the help of God and the people."

La Decena Tragica- the ten day period of turmoil in the capital where Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes begin fighting in Mexico City; led to Madero's fall and assassination and the rise of Huerta.

Plan de Guadalupe- Carranza assumes leadership of rebellion against Huerta; declared Huerta's rise to power illegitimate; Carranza declares himself "First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army"; followed by edicts pushed by Obregon and Luis Cabrera: restoration of ejidos and the establishment of the National Agrarian Commission, it also called for improved conditions of the poor

Aguascaliente Convention (Hot waters convention)- Convention of Villa's, Carranza's, and Zapata's supporters; wanted to decide who would lead Mexico; led to Carranza's move to Veracruz for safety; Villa's troops take control of the convention hall; Villa also issue a suicide statement; Plan de Ayala adopted; led to debate between Conventionists (Zapata supporters and Villa supporters) vs. Constitutionalists (Carranza supporters)

Tampico Incident- The USS Dolphin affair. A small US landing party from the USS Dolphin, stationed off the coast near Tampico and under the command of Captain Ralph T. Earle, were arrested after wandering into a restricted area. The sailors were soon released and an apology given. US Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo thought the apology insufficient and demanded the Mexican army to hoist the US flag and present a twenty-one gun salute to the American Navy. Led to the Veracruz occupation in which the US enters Veracruz and marines take over; there were 400 Mexican casualties versus 4 US deaths and 20 wounded; Huerta had to draw troops away from fighting revolutionaries to deal with US troops, which helped lead to his downfall

Veracruz Occupation- (see above)

Pershing Expedition- Reacting to the US embargo on arms, Pancho Villa raids Columbus, New Mexico and kills 16 civilians; Wilson sends General Pershing into Mexico to capture and punish Villa; Carranza opposes this action, viewing it as "foreign invasion"; never successful in locating Villa

Constitution of 1917-issued under Carranza and held 4 major clauses

Article 3-secular education

-maintained that there had to be compulsory elementary education 
-public education would be free 
-prohibited religion in having any influence in public education 

Article 27-land reform 
-nation is the original owner of all land, water, and subsoil 
-state could expropriate with compensation 
-all acts passed since Land Law of 1856 transferring ownership of ejidos would be null and void 

Article 123-labor reform 
-provided for 8 hour work day 
-prohibited child labor 
-equal pay for equal work 
-wages must be paid in legal tender, not goods, tokens, or vouchers (this put an end to the tienda de raya*) 
-guaranteed the right to bargain collectively, organize, and strike 

Article 130-restrictions on church 
-nation cannot create a law establishing religion 
-marriage was a civil contract 
-only individuals born in Mexico can be ministers 
-limited property ownership by church

Read more in Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917.

Zimmerman Telegram- Arthur Zimmerman, German foreign secretary in 1917, sent a letter to Carranza asking him to join Germany in the fight against the US in W.W.I, promising Mexican cession lands, such as California, to be returned; the British admiral intercepted it, turned it over to Wilson, aiding in the declaration of war on Germany 5 weeks later; Carranza stayed out of it

Indigenismo- Meant to counter social Darwinism and Cientificos; under Obregon; Manuel Gamio was the Director of the Office of Anthropology; there was a reassessment of Indian cultural heritage, pushing the greatness of old Indian arts; the reevaluation of the Aztec culture emphasizes their influence on modern culture and increases nationalism

Bucareli Agreement- Obregon confirms nonretroactivity; goes back to Article 27; the US in turn gives recognition to the Obregon government

CROM- "Confederacion regional de obrera Mexicana," the labor union instituted by Obregon headed by Luis Morones. This was meant to encourage organized labor. Obregon government bet heavily on this and Obregon soon co-opted it, while at the same time harassing the communist and anarchist-led unions.

Cristeros-militant Catholics (guerillas); religious conflict under Calles; government schools and teachers were targets of the attack; government repression of guerillas severe

PNR- (National Revolutionary Party)- Calles institutionalizes the rule of "the revolutionary party"; under different names, this party has been ruling since 1929, their official presidential candidate had never lost; after consolidating power, the revolutionary party becomes conservative; the shift coincides with the beginning of the Great Depression; rule over when Vincente Fox won only recently; by 1933, a progressive wing of PNR emerges with General Cardenas as leader of the reformers

CTM- the Confederacion de Trabajadores Mexicanos- formerly CROM; under Cardenas; strikes supported by government (where appropriate),and corrupt leaders were removed

PRM-Party of the Mexican Revolution- Cardenas reorganized and purged the party of Calles' influence; the three pillars of this party are labor, the peasantry, and the army.

The Six Year Plan- the Mexican Revolution continues under Cardenas; he established a spirit of service in the bureaucracy; closed gambling houses and cut his own salary in half

The Oil Crisis- American and British oil companies vs. workers unions; the strike leads to arbitration, but companies refuse to settle; this leads to Cardenas nationalizing oil companies and further economic independence

*Tienda de Raya- a system in which workers on large landholders' land would be paid in vouchers or tokens that were only redeemable at the stores belonging the landholders; any debt accumulated by one worker would be passed to his children if he was unable to pay it; debt would continue to move through the generations until fully paid


Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Precursor to Revolution:
The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Porfirio Diaz
- Former liberal general
- President, 1876-1911, when overthrown (except for 1880-1884 term served by Manuel Gonzales, friend)
Characteristics of his regime:
- Offered an end to civil wars
- Greater social stability
- National development (commercialization and capitalist expansion) included increasing domination of foreign capital
- Created solid banking system, tax collection system, made Mexican currency one of the soundest
- Abandoned strong anti-clerical stance (in contrast to La Reforma presidents, like Juarez)
- Repression used to support "Order and Progress" ideas - Guardias Rurales (brutal personal police force)
- Ciantificos promoted Positivist doctrines
- "Pan o Palo": co-opted local caudillos and made them part of his regime in order to centralize control
- Built up federal army, infrastructure (using foreign capital)
- Supported land concentration by haciendas
How it led to social revolutionary crisis:
- Porfirian state held together by Diaz's personal patronage system, kinship and relationships among the elite
- Few administrative institutions created
- Little thought given to how his personal power and function would be replaced with institutions when he was gone - Caudillismo
- Created conditions for political crisis
- Supported land concentrations by haciendas
- Porfirian economic policy encouraged differentiation of wealth within communities and growing inequalities between communities (Ex: construction of railroads benefited some and marginalized others)
- Less than 1% of Mexican families controlled 85% of country's wealth
- By 1910, the nation had 900 large land owners and a landless rural population of nine million out of a total population of fifteen million. Many haciendas were huge; those owned by the Terrazas-Creel clan contained more acreage than the entire nation of Costa Rica.

Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Documents: 
Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

It was a premier document of the Mexican Revolution. Carranza eventually accepted a draft made by delegates but never fully implemented it; the Constitution was never fully embraced by any of the presidents until the era of Lazaro Cardenas. The constitution was similar to the constitution of 1857. It was adapted on February 5, 1917 and is still the governing document in Mexico today.
  • Article 3 dealt with the public education system declaring that schools should be free to the public and that no religious organization could operate a primary school.
  • Article 24 was a religion controlling measure stating that public worship was to be regulated by the government. Other anti-church legislation was to be found in article 5, and in article 130 forbidding the creation of a state religion and made the institution of marriage a civil matter also doing away with religious oaths.
  • Article 27 called for regulation that denied aliens the ability to acquire land, unless they considered themselves to be a Mexican citizen, and not to seek the help of a foreign country to protect their land and rights. Also under this article religious institutions were forbidden from owning land and all places of public worship were declared to be property of the Mexican nation. This article further empowered the Mexican government to cut up the large land holdings of private individuals and "establish new centers of rural population with such lands".
  • Article 32 called for the treatment of Mexican citizens to be above the treatment of aliens and that only Mexican citizens could serve in the Mexican military system. 
  • Article 33 called for the expulsion of aliens without any judicial process. Aliens could also be thrown out of Mexico by orders of the president. 
  • Article 123 addressed the rights of the working Mexican and organized labor. The right guaranteeing the worker to organize unions and establish an eight hour work day was greatly embraced by the masses. Other grievances such as overtime, child labor, and work place safety laws were given attention. This provision seemed to have something for everyone including expectant mothers who could look forward to a three month maternity leave as well as minimum wage guarantees. Of interest, the feminist movement was taking hold and a declaration that equal pay for equal work was also included and those wages were to be paid in cash, not script.

Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Timeline:
Year-by-Year of the Mexican Revolution

Military Phase

1906
Consolidated Copper Mine Strike - Cananea, Sonora copper strike. Consolidated Copper Company of William C. Greene. 5,360 Mexicans and 2,200 Americans. Wages were above national average. Mexicans received 3 pesos for 10-11 hrs; Americans received 7 pesos for 8-10 hrs. Strike on June 1, 1906. Shot at. State troops and rurales and then U.S. forces from Arizona. 23 killed. Infuriated Mexicans but showed that the regime had no qualms about using force or use gringos to kill Mexicans. 
1907 - Textile Workers Strike - Río Blanco textile mill. January 7, 1907. Riot. Soldiers used to quell the riot. Two hundred were killed by soldiers. 

1907- 1910 Food crisis due to crop failures

1910

April. Madero officially enters the presidential race against Porfirio Diaz. He ran under the Anti- Reelectionist Party Ticket, since Diaz refused to allow the VP candidate to come from outside his clique. 

June. Diaz has presidential hopeful Madero jailed on phony charges, along with 5000 supporters. Diaz wins the presidential election.

October. Madero issues the Plan of San Luis Potosi, dated October 5, the last day he had resided in the city, although he actually published the plan from San Antonio, Texas

1911 -
January 2. Rebels in Chihuahua ambush and capture a large government convoy. 

February. After leading an unsuccessful attack against federal troops near Casas Grande, Madero decides to leave the fighting to Orozco, Villa and other proven and more experienced military leaders.

April. The first significant battle between Revolutionary forces and federal troops near the US border occurs at Agua Prieta, Sonora.

May 10. Ciudad Juarez falls to Madero under the military leadership of General Orozco and Pancho Villa. Madero occupies the city and sets up a provisional government that excludes Orozco. This exclusion results in continued conflict between Madero and Orozco.

May. Treaty of Ciudad Juarez.

May 25. Diaz resigns.

October 1. In the general elections for president, Madero wins 90% of the vote. However, he is quickly at odds with Zapata over land reform.

November 6. Madero and Pino Suarez take their oath of office as elected president and vice president.

November 27. Emiliano Zapata and his followers issue the "Plan de Ayala".

1912 - 
March 25. The "Plan Orozquista,"calling for social reforms and the removal of Madero, is issued.

October. Felix Diaz, nephew of ex-President Diaz forms an army near Veracruz against Madero. He is then captured by government troops and transported to Mexico City. While in prison there Diaz conspires with fellow political prisoner Bernardo Reyes against Madero.

1913 - 
February 9. Felix Diaz released from prison. The military coup planned by Felix Diaz, Bernardo Reyes, and others begins. The "Decena Tragica", or ten days of tragedy, engulfs Mexico City in fighting. Madero is at the mercy of his aides. 

February 18. Huerta turns against President Madero, joins a minor rebellion he was sent to fight, and sends General Aureliano Blanquet into the National Palace to arrest Madero.

February 19. Madero's brother Gustavo is killed by government soldiers. Venustiano Carranza, governor of Coahuila, publicly announces his opposition to the new Mexican president Huerta.

February 22. Francisco Madero and former Vice President Jose Maria Pino Suarez are shot by government troops, supposedly while trying to escape. This assassination was greatly protested by the government of the United States, but no action was taken.

March 6. Pancho Villa and eight followers enter Mexico from the United States. Villa begins an active military campaign continues for years.

March 26. The Plan de Guadalupe is initiated by Venustiano Carranza, Governor of Coahuila and Madero supporter.

September. Huerta dissolves both houses of the Mexican legislature, which was actively debating his actions.

1914 - 
February. Three-quarters of Mexico is under the control of rebel Revolutionary leaders. Huerta only controls the central Mexico area and Mexico City. 

April 9. Tampico incident.

April 14. United States President Wilson announces his intention to send troops and make a naval demonstration against Huerta.

April 21. United States President Wilson sends to Mexico the United States military to occupy the port of Veracruz for six months. This action was taken following reports of a German ship called "Ypiranga" reported to be carrying arms and heading for Veracruz harbor. Pancho Villa and Zapata support the Convention of Aguascalientes against Carranza. 

April 27. The US flag was formally raised in the Mexican port city of Veracruz. The United States Navy and Army set up military control of Veracruz and soon established school systems, attempted to control prostitution, and drove the vultures from the city streets.

July 8. Mexican President Huerta formally submits his statement of resignation, claiming that Mexican internal problems were caused by the intervention and interference of the United States.

August 12. President Carbajal resigns and follows Huerta into exile.

October. The convention of Aguascalientes.

November 1. The Convention delegates at Aguascalientes formally elect General Eualalio Gutierrez, as president of the Republic.

November 10. Gutierrez declares Carranza to be a rebel and appoints Villa as operational commander of the two convention armies.

November 23. United States troops, sailors and marines, on presidential orders leave the Mexican port city of Veracruz.

November 24. Zapata takes control of Mexico City one week before Villa can arrive with his own troops. Both armies were trying to beat each other to the capital city.

December 4. Villa and Zapata meet at Xochimilco, near Mexico City to discuss the ouster of Carranza. The formation of a pact known as the " Xochimilco Pact", a verbal agreement on the generalities of the struggle. In the end, both went their own ways.

1915 - 
January 5. General Obregon's army drives Zapata's forces from the strategic city of Puebla. Obregon begins a march to retake Mexico City. Obregon now calls his army The Operational Army. 

January 6. Carranza announces his "agrarian reform law", which returns all lands to villages seized by the law of June 25th 1856 under the administration of Benito Juarez.

January 28. Obregon retakes Mexico City driving rebel troops North and South. Obregon forces President Gutierrez to abandon Mexico City. Gutierrez does not recognize Obregon and sets up a provisional government in Nuevo Leon. Roque Gonzalez Garza, a recently installed president by Villa, was forced to move his government to the Zapata held town of Cuernavaca.

March 10. Obregon's Operational Army marches from Mexico City to the North against Villa.

April 6. United States government recognizes President Carranza as the de facto president of Mexico. This battle (at Celaya) was the most bloody of the Revolution.

April 29. Villa and Obregon fight the battle of Trinidad.

June 20 - July 10. The Battle of Aguascalientes. General Obregon catches up to a retreating Villa near the city of Aguascalientes on June 20th. On July 6th Obregon launches attack on the now Villa fortified city. On July 10th, and almost out of ammunition and supplies, Obregon breaks into the city center, taking the city and scattering Villa's troops.

July 11. Zapatista forces abandon Mexico City to Pablo Gonzalez. Gonzales soon evacuates the city.

July 17. Obregon's advance cavalry enters Zacatecas. Villa continues his retreat to Torreon.

August 2. Pablo Gonzalez again enters Mexico City, this time to stay. The Southern Liberation Army under Zapata would never again occupy Mexico City.

August 11. United States Secretary of State Lansing along with representatives of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, Bolivia and Guatemala send to Carranza, Villa, Zapata and various Mexican General a dispatch which became known as the "Pan- American Note". This note volunteered the signing countries to act as mediators in settling the bloodshed. Villa and Zapata accepted the offer, however, Carranza rejected the meddling outright.

August. The Casa del Obrero Mundial, COM, labor union was reestablished in Mexico City with Luis N. Morones as secretary general of the now reorganized Federal District Union Federation. Branches were soon set up in San Luis Potosi, Yucatan, Veracruz, Pamaulipas, Coahuila, Pueblo, Guanajuato, and Hidalgo.

October 19. United States government recognizes the Carranza government at a de facto government and banned further arm sales to his enemies, particularly Villa. Obregon's forces were given permission to enter the United States in it's pursuit of Villista forces.

November 30. Striking railway workers are conscripted into the army.

December 20. Ciudad Juarez falls to Obregon's troops. By December 31st the Constitutionalists controlled all of the cities in Mexico.

1916 - 
January. Villista Pablo Lopez attacks and kills 15 American miners at Santa Isabel, Chihuahua. Lopez quickly becomes the number two target of the United States behind Villa. Lopez was captured by Carrancista troops and allegedly executed. 

January 19. General Pablo Gonzalez makes a public declaration against labor agitation.

March 5. Leaders of the Federal District Union Federation call a National Workers Congress in the city of Veracruz. This meeting approved the formation of the Mexico Regional Federation of Labour.

March 9. At three in the morning, Columbus New Mexico is raided by Villa in response to the US recognition of Carranza. Mexican President Carrranza calls for a constitutional convention.

March 15. On orders from United States president Wilson, General John "Black Jack" Pershing crosses into Mexico and leads a motorcade of US soldiers carrying Springfield rifles into Mexico in search for Villa. (Pershing Expedition) After five weeks the expedition is bogged down due to political reasons and unfriendly terrain. The United States military and Pershing used the expedition and border build up to test and modernize US army training and tactics.

April 18. The Plan of Revolutionary Political and Social Reforms was issued in Jojutla. The plan called for such things as divorce laws, education reform, and adoption of a parliamentary system of government.

April 29. Talks between General Obregon, minister of war in the Carranza government and US General Scott begin in El Paso Texas to discuss the withdrawal of US troops from Mexican soil.

June. Carranza forces attack Tlaltizapan and capture the munitions factory. A massacre occurred forcing Zapata and his remaining troops to reorganize resistance in mountain bases. Morelos had been occupied.

June 8. After the events at Carrizal, US President Wilson federalizes the nation's state militia and orders all troops to the Mexican border.

June 21. Carranza announces that any US troop movements must be north towards the United States border and not south.

July 31. After meeting in secret the federal council of the newly formed Mexican Regional Federation of Labour begins a general strike that starts with the Mexico City electrician union, blacking out the capital city.

August 2. The leader of the striking electrical workers in Mexico City, Ernesto Velasco, is arrested. Fearing the death penalty, Velasco sent notes of surrender to Carranza.

September. General Gonzalez issues order against the villages of Moroles stating that peasant families would be deported.

September. Villa briefly marches into the city of Chihuahua and releases all prisoners from jail and supplies his troops at the expense of the citizens of the city.

October. Villa issues a manifesto calling the nation to resist and expell the invading US Troops under Pershing. He also calls for expropriation of foreign mining and railroads. No foreigner with less than twenty five years residence should be allowed to own property in Mexico. The manifesto ended with "Mexico for the Mexicans!".

December 1. Zapata launches major offensive against Carranza forces occupying various villages in the state of Morelos. General Gonzalez's troops begin a formal retreat.

December 22. For the third time during the Revolution, Villa captures the city of Torreon with his force of 5,000 men.

1917 -
January. US General Pershing withdraws from Mexico without coming close to capturing Villa. 

February 5 - Ratification and approval of the Consitution of 1917 in Queretaro.

March 11. Election of Carranza to the Presidency of Mexico. Zapatistas refuse to recognize Carranza. Assumed the office on May 1. Carranza soon announces that he accepts the constitution of 1917, but has no notion of enforcing it. Carranza breaks politically with Obregon and assumes control of the war ministry.

1918 - 
May. (CROM) the Regional Confederation of Mexican Labor ( Confederacion de Trobajadores Mexicanos) is formed by a national labor congress in the city of Saltillo. CROM attaches itself to Obregon's political party.
1919 - 
March. Letter from Zapata to Carranza. Zapata's famous "man to man" letter calling for Carranza to retire in the name of the masses and for the good of the country. Letter was a passionate writing explaining why he had fought each Mexican president for over a decade. This letter was written to "citizen Carranza", not president Carranza. 

April 10. Villista forces capture the town of Parral.

April 10. Mexican government troops kill Zapata near the Hacienda de Chinameca, in Zapata's home territory, by trickery at the hand of Colonel Guajardo on orders of General Pablo Gonzalez.

1920 - 
March. President Carranza tries to install Ignacio Bonillas as president of Mexico to succeed him. General population of the country sees this act by Carranza to install a puppet president as wrong for the country. 

March. Obregon makes an alliance with Magana assuring Obregon of Zapatist support in his fight against Carranza.

April. Alvaro Obregon heads revolt against Carranza, who is killed. Villa is granted amnesty from interim president Adolfo de la Huerta, who turns office over to President elect Obregon. The "Plan de Agua Prieta", was formed by Obregon , Calles, and Adolfo de la Huerta and officially issued on April 23. The army of Obregon consisted mostly of Northerners that marched on Mexico City.

May 7. Carranza flees Mexico City and is soon killed by a bodyguard in the Puebla mountains.

May 9. Obregon marched into Mexico City.

May 24. Adolfo de la Huerta is chosen as provisional president.

June 2. 20,000 soldiers, including Zapatistas, march past the national palace in support of the new regime.

July 9. Minister of the army and navy, General Plutarco Elias Calles, declares there will be no peace with Villa and calls for his surrender. Villa breaks off contact with the government and goes into hiding in his mountain stronghold. Calles sends off troops in pursuit of Villa.

July 26. Villa and his men, after a five day forced march, attacked the city of Sabinas, loot the town and tear up fifty miles of railroad track.

July 28. A force of government troops arrive at Sabinas and strike a deal with Villa. 

Terms: 
1) Villa lay down arms and retire. 
2) Villa receives ownership of the Canutillo hacienda, located in the state of Durango. 

3) Villa is allowed to keep 50 trusted men under arms. 

4) The government would pay a years salary to anyone currently with Villa. 

5) Those men of Villa's who wished to continue on in military life could join the government army.

Reform Phase

1920 - 

September 5. Election of Obregon to the presidency of Mexico. This ascension of Obregon ends the most violent years of the Revolution. 

December 1. Obregon assumes his elected office of President of Mexico.

1923. 
Pancho Villa is assassinated while driving his car on Gabino Barreda Street in Parral, Chihuahua.

July. Diplomatic links with the United States are re- established. 

August - Bucareli Agreement.

Calles is designed successor to the presidency by Mexican President Obregon. Revolt of Adolfo de la Huerta is suppressed. Calles draws immediate political violence from Catholic leaders and conservative special interest groups and landed hacendados.

1924. 
CROM, the Confereracion Regional Obrera Mejicana, president, Luis N. Morones, holds much power over new president Calles and is even placed in the presidential cabinet as secretary of labor. CROM began as a loose association of trade unions.
1926-1927. Yaqui Indian uprising in the state of Sonora over the return of Yaqui lands.

1926- 

July 31. Strike by Catholic priests called by Archbishop of Mexico Jose Mora y del Rio. For the first time in four hundred years no baptism of babies, masses held, or last rites for the dying were given. The country was morally confused as to where their loyalties should be given.

1927. United States and Mexico argue over rights of United States oil companies and their holding located on Mexican soil. Unites States Ambassador Dwight Morrow replaced Ambassador James Shefield.

1928-
July 17. Ex-president and current president hopeful Obregon is assassinated by artist Jose de Leon Toral.

-- Cristero War is brought to an end by President Portes Gil. Calles forms the PNR, National Revolutionary Party. Rubio is elected president. General Escobar fails in a military rebellion.

1929 - 
March. In the historic city of Queretaro, the foundation of the Official Political Party of Mexico, the PNR, or the National Revolutionary Party was established. Initially formed as a basis for individuals to do battle politically. The party was reorganized in 1938 as the Party of the Mexican Revolution, or PRM, and again in 1946 as the Party of Institutional Revolution, or PRI. 

May. Bloody rebellion by National University Students in Mexico City over the new policy of giving written exams instead of oral exams. The battle between police and students brought an intellectual element into the revolutionary years. Soon the rampaging students turned their attention to President Calles, and began calling for his removal with the university becoming a focal point of unrest.

1932- Mexican President Rubio resigns over severe economic depression and political problems. Abelardo Rodriguez assumes the presidency of Mexico.
 
1933 - December. PNR meets in Queretaro to agree to radical new programs and formally elect Cardenas as presidential candidate.
 
1934. Cardenas is elected president. Socialist Education program is initiated by Mexican congress. Aggressive agrarian land reform initiated.
 
1935. President Cardenas supports and encourages the Mexican masses to strike and organize under unions. Extensive land distribution is initiated. Calles opposes. Organized labor unions gain in political strength.
 
1936. (CTM) Mexican Confederation of Labor is formed to back Cardenas against Calles.
 
1938 -
March 18. Oil expropriation began.

March 30. (PNR) is reorganized as a Mexican popular front and becomes the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM). This reorganization was called for by president Cardenas in response to the confrontation between Mexico and the foreign owned oil interests being nationalized by Mexico. This reorganization principal was very popular in fascist Italy. Cardenas's enemies used the event to further brand him a communist or fascist.

1939 - September 14. (PAN) The National Action Party is founded to oppose the PRM.
 
1940 -July 7. Manuel Avila Camacho is victorious in presidential election. New era begins. Peaceful transition of political power. Historical period known as the Mexican Revolution ends.
Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations

The Presidents of the Revolution

Francisco Leon de la Barra (interim) 1911
Francisco I. Madero 1911-1913

Pedro Lascurain (interim) 1913

Victoriano Huerta (interim) 1913-1914

Francisco S. Carbajal (interim) 1914

Venustiano Carranza 1914 & 1915-1920

Eulalio Gutierrez (interim) 1914

Roque Gonzalez Garza 1914

Francisco Lagos Chazaro 1915

Adolfo de la Huerta (interim) 1920

Alvaro Obregon 1920-1924

Plutarco Elias Calles 1924-1928

Emilio Portes Gil (interim) 1928-1930

Pascual Ortiz Rubio 1930-1932

Abelardo L. Rodriguez (interim) 1932-1934

Lazaro Cardenas 1934-1940


Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Presidential Bios

Francisco Leon de la Barra was the Mexican ambassador to the United States, and was selected to be the interim president after Diaz. The representatives of Limantour and Madero selected him to fill the position. Radical supporters of Madero were not happy with this decision because they felt that Barra had the habit of appointing old political friends of Diaz into government posts. But, after a general election on October 1st, Madero was transferred the power on November 6th, 1911. 

Fransisco L. Madero served as president until he was assassinated and overthrown by Huerta. He was an idealist and it was said that he was very enthusiastic. Also, Madero supported democratic principals, even though they were not the popular politics of the time. With the political atmosphere that Madero had created, the threat from the federal government was not as strong. He was assassinated on his way to prison, and it was said that he had tried to escape. 

Pedro Lascurain was the Secretary of Foreign Relations, but became the interim president after the death of Madero. General Victoriano Huerta was immediately appointed secretary of the interior, with Lascurain in power. Lascurain also resigned quickly after, which allowed Huerta to succeed him. 

Victoriano Huerta was an agent of Diaz, and had troubles with his relations with US President Wilson because he was accusing Huerta of trying to restore the beliefs of Diaz. At this time, the US was also occupying the port of Veracruz, which placed more pressure on his presidency and it eventually took him out of power. He fled Mexico to Cuba, then from Cuba to the United States. He was charged with violation of United States neutrality laws and was jailed. 

Francisco S. Carbajal was named Secretary of Foreign Relations by Huerta and became the interim president of Mexico. He did not attempt to create authority for himself and after he made Carranza’s path to power easier by clearing troops from Mexico city, he provisionally turned over his power to Eduardo Iturbide. But, Carranza did not take any chances and quickly transferred the power to himself. 

Eulalio Gutierrez was chosen to be the interim president of Mexico after Carranza, by the delegates at the Aguascalientes. He had aligned himself with Villa, but abandoned Mexico city to Obregon. Obregon was running the country while Gutirrez declared presidency. 

Emilio Portes Gil was the former governor of Tamaulipas and an attorney. He was also another interim president of Mexico, but was the first puppet president that was actually under the control of Calles. 

Pascual Ortiz Rubio was the second puppet president that was actually under the control of Calles. However, after Rubio won the election he challenged some of Calles’s programs. So, he soon found a newspaper that informed him he had resigned from the office of president. 

Abelardo L. Rodriguez was a general in the Mexican army that served under Calles and became the third puppet president under the control of Calles. He was the perfect choice for Calles because he was said to have very little administration skill or a great relish for power, so it was easy to control him.


Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Comparison of Major Presidents

Carranza Obregon Calles Cardenas
governor of the state of Coahuila military general under Carranza military leader leader of reformers
dissident of the landowning elite pragmatic/military approach to government radical rhetoric/ pragmatic policy party chairman
    creates national bank picked by Calles to have the presidency
Plan de Guadalupe modern version of "pan o palo"   Six Year Plan
-wanted to create an "energetic middle class" -distributed 3 million acres of land, while 320 million acres remained in the hands of the hacendados -8 million hectares of land redistributed
-45 million acres of land redistributed
-wanted to return to the Constitution of 1857   -PNR -PRM
-partook in the creation of the Constitution of 1917 -encouraged labor organization (CROM) -labor splits from CROM into independent unions -corruption from CROM ended
  -Bucareli Agreement -US Conflict over land ownership-lease agreements
-nationalizes the oil companies

 
 
Francisco I. Madero Emiliano Zapata Pancho Villa
-dissident large landholder -agrarian revolutionary

-leader of the landless peasants


-agrarian revolutionary

-supported by cowboys, the ranchers, and the unemployed

-Plan de San Luis Potosi

-Treaty of Ciudad Juarez

-Plan de Ayala

-Tierra y Libertad

-did not want to be president

-all land confiscated during the revolution would be used by the government and then later redistributed
-always at odds with Zapata over land reform

-at the beginning of the revolution, was supported by Villa, Zapata, Pascual Orozco, Venustiano Carranza, and Alvaro Obregon

-worked with Villa, but they were divided over land reform differences -Carranza's most formidable military opponent
 
 
-Henry Land Wilson caused downfall, along with Huerta Coup

La Decena Tragica 

-killed February, 1913


-assassinated by Carranza supporters, 1915
-downfall in Obregon, 1915

Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Women's Role in Mexican Revolution

Women’s Involvement in the Mexican Revolution

Mexican Women

The Mexican women during this time period were the labor activists, radical journalists and militant intellectuals. They fought for political leadership and liberal ideas. It is a misconception to think that women did not help greatly in the Mexican Revolution, they had a huge impact. The Soldaderas were a group of women soldiers, field supporters, cooks, companions and some even fought alongside men in combat, some assumed leadership positions. Many women had fervent political beliefs about the Revolution and crossed the US border to have their voices heard, there were a great number of radical Mexican women in Texas. Women created radical publications such as "La Mujer Moderna" and "Voz de la Mujer." Here were also women’s clubs working for the Liberal Party such as "Daughters of Cuahtemoc." Senora Flores de Andrade started this liberal women’s group and worked with the Flores Magnon Brothers in order to fight against Diaz’s dictatorship. The group’s objective was to fight for liberal ideas and establish branches of the women’s club in all parts of the state that would carry on an intense propaganda program. Flores received messages from the Flores Magnon Brothers in her home which soon became a center for conspiracy against the Diaz regime. Flores collected money, clothes, medicine and weapons during the Revolution. The American Police and the Department of Justice began to get suspicious of her motives but could not find any evidence to convict Flores. The American authorities followed Flores until she took cover across the border in a US ranch, she was caught by the police and arrested, then sentenced to death. President Taft; however, ordered her liberty, after that point, Senora Flores became less involved in political affairs and was convinced that the Revolution promised a great deal to the Mexican people but never accomplished anything. 

Other Influential Mexican Women Involved in the Revolution:

DOLORES JIMENEZ y MURO

  • Schoolteacher who became a large figure in radical politics, left-wing journalist and supporter of Zapata during the Revolution, eventually becoming a member of his gov.
  • Member of a group that formed the ideas for a "Plan," forming ideas for the "Complot de Tacubaya."
  • The Complot: a plan to create a rebellion which would bring Madero to power.
  • Jimenez was asked by Revolution leaders to formulate the ideas for this plot.
  • Result: "Political and Social Plan" or March 18, 1911. 
    • some historians say this was only a continuation of the PLM principles of 1906, i.e. James D. Cockroft.
    • Plan contained reforms which should be made by the government such as: better working conditions, increased wages, set hours of work, and education reform.
  • The Plan was important in showing Jimenez’s influence in the Mexican Revolution.

  • -it included her own ideas
    -wanted decentralization of Mexican education system, allowing schools to be locally controlled and funded.
    -wanted reforms for housing the lower class had to endure (it was usually inadequate and overpriced).
    -wanted real estate values reassessed in order to lower rent for the poor living in cities.
    -wanted equal wages and wage increases for both sexes.
HERMINA GALINDO
  • Wrote many political treatises, was an advocate of Carranza and the editor and founder of the Mujer Moderna from 1915-1919.
  • She soon joined Carranza’s government and became a large contributor to his regime, some historians believe it was a poly by him to gain the support of the Mexican women which is highly likely.
  • Feminist:

  • -wrote articles and spoke to women’s groups, encouraging women to join revolutionary groups.
    -openly attacked the Catholic Church in writings and speeches.
    -wanted equal rights for men and women.
    -ran for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies and although she lost, she was successful in drawing attention to herself and her arguments.
    -set the standard for future revolutionaries and feminists.
American Women

By 1920 there were over 147,000 legal Mexican immigrants living in Texas and over 16,000 in California. Women’s groups in the US were concerned about he well-being and conditions of these immigrants. In Pasadena, California, a women’s group petitioned the mayor to improve the living conditions of the small Mexican slums. In these slums there were no sanitary facilities, such as running water or sewage systems and often times up to 12 people lived in a small house. Finally the Mayor of Pasadena paved the roads and hooked up sewer lines in the slums. The Women’s Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church South (San Antonia, Texas) created an institute for Mexican immigrants which was called The Wesley Community Home. The Home provided life necessities for over 6,000 Mexicans in one neighborhood, as well as schooling.

Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations

US Involvement and Policies During the Mexican Revolution

US Military Involvement:
  • Before the Revolution, US decisions proposed that the US would aid civil authorities in enforcing neutrality laws.
  • Jacob Dickinson, secretary of war, authorized American Military to warn Mexican militaries about actions which were to be taken in the case that American lives and properties were threatened. Only then would the US armed forces intervene.
  • Taft took action as the situation in Mexico worsened.

  • -1911 "Maneuver Division."
    -a division of men designed to provide field training and assume official role of enforcing neutrality laws.
    -centered in San Antonio, Texas.
Wilson’s Policies
  • his policies have been seen as narrow-minded, patronizing and hypocritical. 
  • although he was an advocate for self-determination of people (Wilson’s 14 points), he carried out more armed interventions than any of his predecessors.
  • motive to intervene was of peer desire. 
  • goal was to get the constitutionals, including Carranza, into power so that he could attempt to control the party.
  • he felt that Mexico should be educated along liberal, constitutional, and North American lines, he then proclaimed himself the tutor of Mexican politics.
  • his policies were false and involved misreading of Mexican reality. 
  • although his initial intervention in Mexico was not wrong, the reasons for the intervention were wrong. 
  • Wilson’s policies called for a representative government in Mexico, but this was only because a representative government in Mexico would be conducive to political stability and capitalist development.

Vocabulary

Precursor to Revolution: The Porfiriato (1876-1910)

Documents: Important Points of the Constitution of 1917

Timeline

1906-1910
1910-1915
1916-1920
1921-1925
1926-1930
1931-1935
1936-1940 

Presidents of the Revolution

Presidential Bios

Comparison of Presidents

Women's Role in Revolution

US Involvement and Policies

Historical Interpretations


Historical Interpretations of the Revolution

Meyer, Michael C. The Course of Mexican History. New York: Oxford Press, 1979. 
Meyer is a professor of history and director of Latin America Area Center at the University of Alabama. In 1971, he was chairman of the council of Mexican historians of the American historical association.

A unique part of the Mexican revolution was the makeup of the rebel armies. They neither were not just traditional organized armies nor were they simply peasant mobs. The armies consisted of peones, servants, shopkeepers, mechanics, beggars, miners, federal army deserters, lawyers, US soldiers of fortune, and teachers. Some joined for the cause itself and some for the promise of spoils. The rebel army combined with masses of people angry at the revolution itself (for example, random people convicted without government supervision for various reasons and hung without appeal) makes the revolution unique. These groups of people caused the outcome to be internal migrations, and north and south communication increase, and regional language homogenization. The quality of life for the masses did not substantially improve, but since the base of power was shifting to new hands the future for the masses seemed auspicious and this hope stems into later generations. 

Mclynn, Frank. Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishing, 2000.
Capitalism took a stronger hold on Mexico because of the revolution. Older elites were replaced by newer ones, and a handful of men achieved fame and fortune. Quote from book: "the Revolution simply showed sophisticated elites how to co-opt rivals and enemies into a one-party state, a mesh of corruption called the partido revolucionario national." 
There were three main strands of the revolution
1. improvement of hacendado and progressive capitalists spearheading the rise of an emerging industrial bourgeoisie---includes Madero, Carranza and Obregon.
2. village movement of free peasants in communal pueblos demanding return of ancestral land---includes Zapata
3. alliance of cowboys, miners, and other marginal peoples of the north---includes Villa

the revolution opened eyes of downtrodden to new possibilities and opened up Mexico to the doors of capitalism

Eisenhower, John S.D. Intervention! The US and the Mexican Revolution 1913-1917. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1993.
Eisenhower is author of several historical works including subjects such as Pearl Harbor. He also served time as a US ambassador.

The main point of his writing is to tell the story of the Mexican revolution and the distaste Wilson had for the leaders including Huerte and Villa. His main point is that the invasions by the US at Vera Cruz, the punitive expedition, and the events involving General Pershing affect greatly the mutual relations between the US And Mexico today to an extent greater than realized. The Mexicans are still weary of involvement with us and political parties still are nervous entering the US political arena. 

Created by Taylor Ramsey, Angela Goddard, Mary Chrisochos, Katie Arndt, and Saira Fida.