THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION
Plan of San Luis Potosi- Written by Madero while in jail; declared that 1) the results of the 1910 election were null and void 2) Madero assumed the title of provisional president and 3) called for free elections when conditions permitted. Suggests Diaz hardly had an iron grip; along with this plan he called for armed resist; As a result: the rebel movement grew rapidly, as its troops took Ciudad Juarez (across the border from El Paso).
Treaty of Ciudad Juarez- was issued after the capture of the city of Juarez; provisions: ended hostilities, called for resignation of Diaz, and placed Francisco de la Berra as provisional president; the biggest problem with the treaty was that it left all of Diaz' institutions and his cabinet in place
Plan de Ayala- this was Emiliano Zapata's reform policy; maintained that all foreign lands would be seized, all lands previously taken from villages (ejidos) would be returned, 1/3 of all land held by "friendly" hacendados taken for redistribution, and all lands owned by Zapata's enemies would be taken. Zapatistas (country dwellers who had seen their lands taken away through "liberal" inspiration) said Madero "did not carry to a happy end the revolution which gloriously he initiated with the help of God and the people."
La Decena Tragica- the ten day period of turmoil in the capital where Felix Diaz and Bernardo Reyes begin fighting in Mexico City; led to Madero's fall and assassination and the rise of Huerta.
Plan de Guadalupe- Carranza assumes leadership of rebellion against Huerta; declared Huerta's rise to power illegitimate; Carranza declares himself "First Chief of the Constitutionalist Army"; followed by edicts pushed by Obregon and Luis Cabrera: restoration of ejidos and the establishment of the National Agrarian Commission, it also called for improved conditions of the poor
Aguascaliente Convention (Hot waters convention)- Convention of Villa's, Carranza's, and Zapata's supporters; wanted to decide who would lead Mexico; led to Carranza's move to Veracruz for safety; Villa's troops take control of the convention hall; Villa also issue a suicide statement; Plan de Ayala adopted; led to debate between Conventionists (Zapata supporters and Villa supporters) vs. Constitutionalists (Carranza supporters)
Tampico Incident- The USS Dolphin affair. A small US landing party from the USS Dolphin, stationed off the coast near Tampico and under the command of Captain Ralph T. Earle, were arrested after wandering into a restricted area. The sailors were soon released and an apology given. US Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo thought the apology insufficient and demanded the Mexican army to hoist the US flag and present a twenty-one gun salute to the American Navy. Led to the Veracruz occupation in which the US enters Veracruz and marines take over; there were 400 Mexican casualties versus 4 US deaths and 20 wounded; Huerta had to draw troops away from fighting revolutionaries to deal with US troops, which helped lead to his downfall
Veracruz Occupation- (see above)
Pershing Expedition- Reacting to the US embargo on arms, Pancho Villa raids Columbus, New Mexico and kills 16 civilians; Wilson sends General Pershing into Mexico to capture and punish Villa; Carranza opposes this action, viewing it as "foreign invasion"; never successful in locating Villa
Constitution of 1917-issued under Carranza and held 4 major clauses
Article 3-secular educationZimmerman Telegram- Arthur Zimmerman, German foreign secretary in 1917, sent a letter to Carranza asking him to join Germany in the fight against the US in W.W.I, promising Mexican cession lands, such as California, to be returned; the British admiral intercepted it, turned it over to Wilson, aiding in the declaration of war on Germany 5 weeks later; Carranza stayed out of it
Indigenismo- Meant to counter social Darwinism and Cientificos; under Obregon; Manuel Gamio was the Director of the Office of Anthropology; there was a reassessment of Indian cultural heritage, pushing the greatness of old Indian arts; the reevaluation of the Aztec culture emphasizes their influence on modern culture and increases nationalism
CROM- "Confederacion regional de obrera Mexicana," the labor union instituted by Obregon headed by Luis Morones. This was meant to encourage organized labor. Obregon government bet heavily on this and Obregon soon co-opted it, while at the same time harassing the communist and anarchist-led unions.
Cristeros-militant Catholics (guerillas); religious conflict under Calles; government schools and teachers were targets of the attack; government repression of guerillas severe
PNR- (National Revolutionary Party)- Calles institutionalizes the rule of "the revolutionary party"; under different names, this party has been ruling since 1929, their official presidential candidate had never lost; after consolidating power, the revolutionary party becomes conservative; the shift coincides with the beginning of the Great Depression; rule over when Vincente Fox won only recently; by 1933, a progressive wing of PNR emerges with General Cardenas as leader of the reformers
CTM- the Confederacion de Trabajadores Mexicanos- formerly CROM; under Cardenas; strikes supported by government (where appropriate),and corrupt leaders were removed
PRM-Party of the Mexican Revolution- Cardenas reorganized and purged the party of Calles' influence; the three pillars of this party are labor, the peasantry, and the army.
The Six Year Plan- the Mexican Revolution continues under Cardenas; he established a spirit of service in the bureaucracy; closed gambling houses and cut his own salary in half
The Oil Crisis- American and British oil companies vs. workers unions; the strike leads to arbitration, but companies refuse to settle; this leads to Cardenas nationalizing oil companies and further economic independence
*Tienda de Raya- a system in which workers on large landholders' land would be paid in vouchers or tokens that were only redeemable at the stores belonging the landholders; any debt accumulated by one worker would be passed to his children if he was unable to pay it; debt would continue to move through the generations until fully paid
- Former liberal generalCharacteristics of his regime:
- Offered an end to civil warsHow it led to social revolutionary crisis:
- Porfirian state held together by Diaz's personal patronage system, kinship and relationships among the elite
Military Phase1906 -
Consolidated Copper Mine Strike - Cananea, Sonora copper strike. Consolidated Copper Company of William C. Greene. 5,360 Mexicans and 2,200 Americans. Wages were above national average. Mexicans received 3 pesos for 10-11 hrs; Americans received 7 pesos for 8-10 hrs. Strike on June 1, 1906. Shot at. State troops and rurales and then U.S. forces from Arizona. 23 killed. Infuriated Mexicans but showed that the regime had no qualms about using force or use gringos to kill Mexicans.1907 - Textile Workers Strike - Río Blanco textile mill. January 7, 1907. Riot. Soldiers used to quell the riot. Two hundred were killed by soldiers.
1907- 1910 Food crisis due to crop failures
April. Madero officially enters the presidential race against Porfirio Diaz. He ran under the Anti- Reelectionist Party Ticket, since Diaz refused to allow the VP candidate to come from outside his clique.1911 -
January 2. Rebels in Chihuahua ambush and capture a large government convoy.1912 -
March 25. The "Plan Orozquista,"calling for social reforms and the removal of Madero, is issued.1913 -
February 9. Felix Diaz released from prison. The military coup planned by Felix Diaz, Bernardo Reyes, and others begins. The "Decena Tragica", or ten days of tragedy, engulfs Mexico City in fighting. Madero is at the mercy of his aides.1914 -
February. Three-quarters of Mexico is under the control of rebel Revolutionary leaders. Huerta only controls the central Mexico area and Mexico City.1915 -
January 5. General Obregon's army drives Zapata's forces from the strategic city of Puebla. Obregon begins a march to retake Mexico City. Obregon now calls his army The Operational Army.1916 -
January. Villista Pablo Lopez attacks and kills 15 American miners at Santa Isabel, Chihuahua. Lopez quickly becomes the number two target of the United States behind Villa. Lopez was captured by Carrancista troops and allegedly executed.1917 -
January. US General Pershing withdraws from Mexico without coming close to capturing Villa.1918 -
May. (CROM) the Regional Confederation of Mexican Labor ( Confederacion de Trobajadores Mexicanos) is formed by a national labor congress in the city of Saltillo. CROM attaches itself to Obregon's political party.1919 -
March. Letter from Zapata to Carranza. Zapata's famous "man to man" letter calling for Carranza to retire in the name of the masses and for the good of the country. Letter was a passionate writing explaining why he had fought each Mexican president for over a decade. This letter was written to "citizen Carranza", not president Carranza.1920 -
March. President Carranza tries to install Ignacio Bonillas as president of Mexico to succeed him. General population of the country sees this act by Carranza to install a puppet president as wrong for the country.Reform Phase
September 5. Election of Obregon to the presidency of Mexico. This ascension of Obregon ends the most violent years of the Revolution.1923.
Pancho Villa is assassinated while driving his car on Gabino Barreda Street in Parral, Chihuahua.1924.
CROM, the Confereracion Regional Obrera Mejicana, president, Luis N. Morones, holds much power over new president Calles and is even placed in the presidential cabinet as secretary of labor. CROM began as a loose association of trade unions.1926-1927. Yaqui Indian uprising in the state of Sonora over the return of Yaqui lands.
July 31. Strike by Catholic priests called by Archbishop of Mexico Jose Mora y del Rio. For the first time in four hundred years no baptism of babies, masses held, or last rites for the dying were given. The country was morally confused as to where their loyalties should be given.1928-
July 17. Ex-president and current president hopeful Obregon is assassinated by artist Jose de Leon Toral.1929 -
March. In the historic city of Queretaro, the foundation of the Official Political Party of Mexico, the PNR, or the National Revolutionary Party was established. Initially formed as a basis for individuals to do battle politically. The party was reorganized in 1938 as the Party of the Mexican Revolution, or PRM, and again in 1946 as the Party of Institutional Revolution, or PRI.1932- Mexican President Rubio resigns over severe economic depression and political problems. Abelardo Rodriguez assumes the presidency of Mexico.
1933 - December. PNR meets in Queretaro to agree to radical new programs and formally elect Cardenas as presidential candidate.
1934. Cardenas is elected president. Socialist Education program is initiated by Mexican congress. Aggressive agrarian land reform initiated.
1935. President Cardenas supports and encourages the Mexican masses to strike and organize under unions. Extensive land distribution is initiated. Calles opposes. Organized labor unions gain in political strength.
1936. (CTM) Mexican Confederation of Labor is formed to back Cardenas against Calles.
March 18. Oil expropriation began.1939 - September 14. (PAN) The National Action Party is founded to oppose the PRM.
1940 -July 7. Manuel Avila Camacho is victorious in presidential election. New era begins. Peaceful transition of political power. Historical period known as the Mexican Revolution ends.
Pedro Lascurain (interim) 1913
Victoriano Huerta (interim) 1913-1914
Francisco S. Carbajal (interim) 1914
Venustiano Carranza 1914 & 1915-1920
Eulalio Gutierrez (interim) 1914
Roque Gonzalez Garza 1914
Francisco Lagos Chazaro 1915
Adolfo de la Huerta (interim) 1920
Alvaro Obregon 1920-1924
Plutarco Elias Calles 1924-1928
Emilio Portes Gil (interim) 1928-1930
Pascual Ortiz Rubio 1930-1932
Abelardo L. Rodriguez (interim) 1932-1934
Lazaro Cardenas 1934-1940
Fransisco L. Madero served as president until he was assassinated and overthrown by Huerta. He was an idealist and it was said that he was very enthusiastic. Also, Madero supported democratic principals, even though they were not the popular politics of the time. With the political atmosphere that Madero had created, the threat from the federal government was not as strong. He was assassinated on his way to prison, and it was said that he had tried to escape.
Pedro Lascurain was the Secretary of Foreign Relations, but became the interim president after the death of Madero. General Victoriano Huerta was immediately appointed secretary of the interior, with Lascurain in power. Lascurain also resigned quickly after, which allowed Huerta to succeed him.
Victoriano Huerta was an agent of Diaz, and had troubles with his relations with US President Wilson because he was accusing Huerta of trying to restore the beliefs of Diaz. At this time, the US was also occupying the port of Veracruz, which placed more pressure on his presidency and it eventually took him out of power. He fled Mexico to Cuba, then from Cuba to the United States. He was charged with violation of United States neutrality laws and was jailed.
Francisco S. Carbajal was named Secretary of Foreign Relations by Huerta and became the interim president of Mexico. He did not attempt to create authority for himself and after he made Carranza’s path to power easier by clearing troops from Mexico city, he provisionally turned over his power to Eduardo Iturbide. But, Carranza did not take any chances and quickly transferred the power to himself.
Eulalio Gutierrez was chosen to be the interim president of Mexico after Carranza, by the delegates at the Aguascalientes. He had aligned himself with Villa, but abandoned Mexico city to Obregon. Obregon was running the country while Gutirrez declared presidency.
Emilio Portes Gil was the former governor of Tamaulipas and an attorney. He was also another interim president of Mexico, but was the first puppet president that was actually under the control of Calles.
Pascual Ortiz Rubio was the second puppet president that was actually under the control of Calles. However, after Rubio won the election he challenged some of Calles’s programs. So, he soon found a newspaper that informed him he had resigned from the office of president.
Abelardo L. Rodriguez was a general in the Mexican army that served under Calles and became the third puppet president under the control of Calles. He was the perfect choice for Calles because he was said to have very little administration skill or a great relish for power, so it was easy to control him.
Women’s Involvement in the Mexican Revolution
The Mexican women during this time period were the labor activists, radical journalists and militant intellectuals. They fought for political leadership and liberal ideas. It is a misconception to think that women did not help greatly in the Mexican Revolution, they had a huge impact. The Soldaderas were a group of women soldiers, field supporters, cooks, companions and some even fought alongside men in combat, some assumed leadership positions. Many women had fervent political beliefs about the Revolution and crossed the US border to have their voices heard, there were a great number of radical Mexican women in Texas. Women created radical publications such as "La Mujer Moderna" and "Voz de la Mujer." Here were also women’s clubs working for the Liberal Party such as "Daughters of Cuahtemoc." Senora Flores de Andrade started this liberal women’s group and worked with the Flores Magnon Brothers in order to fight against Diaz’s dictatorship. The group’s objective was to fight for liberal ideas and establish branches of the women’s club in all parts of the state that would carry on an intense propaganda program. Flores received messages from the Flores Magnon Brothers in her home which soon became a center for conspiracy against the Diaz regime. Flores collected money, clothes, medicine and weapons during the Revolution. The American Police and the Department of Justice began to get suspicious of her motives but could not find any evidence to convict Flores. The American authorities followed Flores until she took cover across the border in a US ranch, she was caught by the police and arrested, then sentenced to death. President Taft; however, ordered her liberty, after that point, Senora Flores became less involved in political affairs and was convinced that the Revolution promised a great deal to the Mexican people but never accomplished anything.
Other Influential Mexican Women Involved in the Revolution:
DOLORES JIMENEZ y MURO
-it included her own ideas
-wanted decentralization of Mexican education system, allowing schools to be locally controlled and funded.
-wanted reforms for housing the lower class had to endure (it was usually inadequate and overpriced).
-wanted real estate values reassessed in order to lower rent for the poor living in cities.
-wanted equal wages and wage increases for both sexes.
-wrote articles and spoke to women’s groups, encouraging women to join revolutionary groups.
-openly attacked the Catholic Church in writings and speeches.
-wanted equal rights for men and women.
-ran for a seat in the Chamber of Deputies and although she lost, she was successful in drawing attention to herself and her arguments.
-set the standard for future revolutionaries and feminists.
By 1920 there were over 147,000 legal Mexican immigrants living in Texas and over 16,000 in California. Women’s groups in the US were concerned about he well-being and conditions of these immigrants. In Pasadena, California, a women’s group petitioned the mayor to improve the living conditions of the small Mexican slums. In these slums there were no sanitary facilities, such as running water or sewage systems and often times up to 12 people lived in a small house. Finally the Mayor of Pasadena paved the roads and hooked up sewer lines in the slums. The Women’s Board of Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church South (San Antonia, Texas) created an institute for Mexican immigrants which was called The Wesley Community Home. The Home provided life necessities for over 6,000 Mexicans in one neighborhood, as well as schooling.
-1911 "Maneuver Division."
-a division of men designed to provide field training and assume official role of enforcing neutrality laws.
-centered in San Antonio, Texas.
Meyer is a professor of history and director of Latin America Area Center at the University of Alabama. In 1971, he was chairman of the council of Mexican historians of the American historical association.Mclynn, Frank. Villa and Zapata: A History of the Mexican Revolution. New York: Carroll and Graf Publishing, 2000.
Capitalism took a stronger hold on Mexico because of the revolution. Older elites were replaced by newer ones, and a handful of men achieved fame and fortune. Quote from book: "the Revolution simply showed sophisticated elites how to co-opt rivals and enemies into a one-party state, a mesh of corruption called the partido revolucionario national."Eisenhower, John S.D. Intervention! The US and the Mexican Revolution 1913-1917. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1993.
Eisenhower is author of several historical works including subjects such as Pearl Harbor. He also served time as a US ambassador.